Dr Pradeep Jain - GI Cancers
GI Cancers are cancers in organs of gastrointestinal tract and related organs like cancers of Esophagus ( food pipe ), stomach, small intestine, large intestine ( colon and rectum ), Liver, Pancreas and Biliary Tract.
Signs and Symptoms of GI CancersThough there are no specific sign or symptoms which conclusively point towards cancers, there are strong indicators like lump in abdomen, difficulty in swallowing, sever loss of appetite and weight, prolonged bleeding from the GI Tract ( Bleeding per rectum in elderly age group ), alteration in bowel habits, painless deep jaundice with white colored stools and itching, Intestinal obstruction in elderly, sudden detection of Diabetes with weight loss etc.
Colo Rectal Cancer
Symptoms of Colorectal CancersThough not specific but there are warning signs like bleeding in stools, sensation of incomplete passage of stools, feeling of bloating or obstruction in intestine, unusual loss of weight and fatigue, alteration of bowel habits, blood and mucus in stools.
Diagnostic tests For Colorectal CancersAns. When suspicious or in high risk patients the best diagnostic tool is sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy. these are endoscopies done through anal route to visualize the entire large intestine from inside. when colonoscopy is not possible other test recommended is Barium enema or CECT scan. USG, X Rays of Abdomen are the other tests recommended during diagnosis and staging the colorectal cancers.
Treatments of Colorectal Cancers In DelhiSurgery, chemotherapy and Radiotherapy are used in the treatment protocol of colon rectum in different sequences depending on stage of disease. out of these Surgery is the primary treatment and curative in early stages.
Causes & Risk factors for Stomach CancerAns- Diet – Foods that are smoked, salted fish and meat, pickled vegetables, and foods that are at the same time high in starch and low in fiber have been identified as possible risk factors. Diet – Foods that are smoked, salted fish and meat, pickled vegetables, and foods that are at the same time high in starch and low in fiber have been identified as possible risk factors.
Tobacco and Alcohol abuse –Increases the risk of cancers in the upper portion of the stomach
Previous stomach surgery – After surgery, more nitrite-producing bacteria are present in the stomach. Nitrites can be converted by other bacteria into compounds that have been found to cause stomach cancer in animals
Family history of stomach cancer – Several close blood relatives who have or had stomach cancer increases a person’s risk.
Helicobacter pylori infection – An infection that, if long-term, can lead to chronic atrophic gastritis, which is inflammation of the stomach’s inner layer.
Chronic atrophic gastritis is a possible precancerous change to the lining of the stomach
Also, risk may be increased, to varying degrees, for people with pernicious anemia, achlorhydria, Menetrier’s disease, familial cancer syndromes, stomach polyps and blood group A.
Pancraetic CancersPancreas is a organ located on back side of abdomen behind stomach. Actually this is an active gland responsible for digestion of food and secrete Insulin for control of blood sugar.
Pancraetic Cancers TreatmentTreatment depends on the stage and fitness of the patient. Surgery is the mainstay in these cancer particularly in early stage. the type of surgery depends on the location of tumor whether they are in head or body or tail of pancreas. It also depends on whether they have involved other surrounding organs or blood vessels. If they do not have wide spread and localized surgery always have the potential for cure. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy is also employed either for unresectable tumors or after surgery for tumors which were not in very early stage.
Liver Cancers TreatmentLiver is the largest internal organ of the body. it is located on the right side of abdomen and protected the rib cage. large number of cancerous and non cancerous tumors can occur in liver. Cancer can arise primarily in liver itself ( of its own ) which is known as primary liver cancer or it can come from other cancer of other organs as part of dissemination which are known as secondaries. The most common primary cancer is Hepatocellular carcinaoma.
Treatment options to treat Liver CancerSurgery – taking out the cancer in an operation
Chemotherapy – using antidrugs to kill cancer cells
Radiation Therapy – aiming high-energy rays at the cancer to destroy it
A doctor will usually combine methods to treat the cancer most effectively.